Paleontology News for November 2017.

I came across a couple of interesting stories detailing new discoveries in the field of paleontology. The stories concern my two favourite kinds of extinct animals, dinosaurs and trilobites so I have to talk about them.

I’ll start with the article about trilobites. For those who aren’t familiar with these creatures from the beginning of multi-cellular life trilobites are arthropods, similar to crustaceans, spider and insects but much simpler in physiology. (See picture below showing trilobite anatomy) Trilobites lived from the beginning of the Cambrian period (about 550 million years ago) until the mass extinction at the end of the Permian period (about 250 million years ago). During that long stretch of time over 20,000 different species are known to have existed so trilobites are a fairly common fossil; I have quite a few in my collection.

Trilobite Anatomy (Credit: Deposits Magazine)

But usually trilobite fossils consist only of the hard outer shell of the animal, the internal anatomy has decayed completely away. Only rare specimens show any of the ‘soft parts’ of animals as old as trilobites. And since trilobites are one of the earliest forms of complex life their internal workings could tell us a lot about how the nervous system, or circulatory systems or other internal parts evolved.

Now a group of researchers headed by Melanie Hopkins of the American Museum of Natural History have published a paper describing the earliest known digestive system of a trilobite. The specimens used in the study come from the Guanshan biota in the Yunnan province of China, a location that produces fossils of exceptional preservation. The fossils used in the study come from two different species, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi, that are common at the site.

Multiple specimens were literally dissected, imagine dissecting an animal dead for 550 million years, in order find their stomach and trace their alimentary canal. In trilobites the stomach, also know as the crop, is situated very close to the mouth beneath the glabella, see picture above. The researchers also discovered pairs of digestive organs on each side of the alimentary canal, which runs nearly the entire length of the trilobite. The image below shows some of the dissected specimens along with drawings of what was found.

Trilobite Dissected (Credit: Hopkins et al)

The digestive system of trilobites may seem simple compared to that of modern arthropods but for their time these were highly evolved. This study has given us some of the details about how the internal workings of a very important group of animals developed.

The second story I’d like to discuss comes from France where the longest known trackway of sauropod dinosaur footprints have been excavated in the Jura Mountains near the village of Plagne. The Jura Mountains by the way is where we get the name of the Jurassic Period.

The sauropod dinosaurs are the familiar long necked, long tailed plant eaters who were the largest animals to ever walk on the Earth. The 155 meter long trackway contains 110 steps and the impressions range from a little over a meter to three meters in diameter. The image below shows the trackway.

Dinosaur Trackway in France (Credit: P. Dumas)

According to the ‘Societe des Naturalistes d’Oyonnax’, a local group of amateur paleontologists who discovered the footprints, the trackway was made by a single animal approximately 35 meters in length with a mass of around 35,000 kilos. The animal walked with an average stride of 2.8 meters at a speed of about 4 kilometers per hour. The image below shows an artist’s representation of the sauropod dinosaur walking along the trackway while humans are beneath it.

Dinosaur in Trackway (Credit: A. Beneteau)

With each new find by paleontologists we are learning more about the history of life on Earth. It is a history far longer and more extensive than the history of the single species we think is so important.

 

 

 

 

44 thoughts on “Paleontology News for November 2017.”

  1. Excellent website you have here but I was wondering
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    same topics discussed here? I’d really like to be a part of group where
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    If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Thanks a lot!

    1. Thanks for the compliment. As far as web sites are concerned there are just so many you can find almost anything. Two I would recommend are “The Fossil Forum” or “My Fossil”. Even better however is try to Google fossils in your state! That way you can hopefully find some information on finding fossils where you live. I’ve bookmarked dozens of such sites! Good Luck and I hope you come back soon.
      Bob L

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    1. Actually there are plenty of people who know a lot about pre-historic life. Sure you can go looking on the web but I really suggest you find yourself a good museum. Here in Philadelphia we have the Academy of Natural Science but nearly every city will have some museum that has a fossil collection. You’d be surprised at how many nature centers will also have some fossils from the local area. You just have to go looking for them. Tell ya what, I’m gonna do a post here soon talking about museums that display fossils. I promise I’ll do it soon!
      Bob L

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      Bob L

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  6. When I originally commented I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on each time a comment is added I recieve four emails with the same comment.
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    1. Four emails, ugh. I don’t know what to do except I’ll try to remove your original comment and you try as well. Hopefully one of us will be able to fix this!
      Bob L

  7. Hello there! This article could not be written much better!
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    He constantly kept talking about this. I’ll forward this article to
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    1. Thanks for the comment. If you’re interested in paleontology check out my post of 20Dec17 where I tell about the museums where you can go to see some unbelievable fossils! Hope you come back soon.
      Bob L

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    1. Thanks for the comment. I’m working on getting the word out but you can help by bringing some friends the next time you visit my site!
      Bob L

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    1. Well thank you! I’m glad you enjoyed the meal and I’m glad your friend enjoyed my blog. I look forward to seeing you both back soon!
      Bob L

    1. Thanks for the comment. I hope your friends appreciate your recommendation as much as I do. Hope to see you back again soon.
      Bob L

  10. Right here is the perfect web site for anybody who wants to find out about this topic.
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    1. Thanks for the compliment but Paleontology is just my hobby, there are plenty of people who know a lot more about it than I do and if you check out my post of 20Dec17 you may find one of the places you can go to learn more yourself.
      Bob L

  11. The next time I read a blog, I hope that it does
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    1. I’m sorry miss but I don’t know what you’re talking about. I re-read the post you commented on “Paleontology News for November” dated 5Dec17 and I don’t see me complaining anywhere in it. Sorry but your comment just doesn’t seem to apply to the contents of the post. Anyway I’m sorry you were disappointed.
      Bob L

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